1) On whom is sadaqatul fitr (fitraana) compulsory? Must one pay on behalf of his wife and children too?
2) What amount has to be paid for sadaqatul fitr?
3) When should sadaqatul fitr be paid?
4) Can one give his sadaqatul fitr to two or more poor people or does he have to give it all to one person?
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيْم
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
1) Sadaqatul fitr is compulsory on a person if the total value of his zakatable assets (cash, gold, silver, merchandise) plus non-essential items (i.e. assets above his basic needs) minus liabilities (debts) equals the zakat nisaab or more. A father on whom sadaqatul fitr is compulsory must also pay sadaqatul fitr on behalf of his immature (non-baligh) children if they do not have their own wealth equal to the nisaab. If they have their own wealth equal to the nisaab, he can pay their sadaqatul fitr from their own wealth. A woman on whom sadaqatul fitr is compulsory must pay it herself. However, if her husband voluntarily pays on her behalf, it will be permissible.
2) One can pay any of these items or the value thereof:
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>2.25 kg of wheat
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>3.6 kg of barley
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>3.9 kg of sultanas
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>4.65 kg of dates
3) It is mustahab (commendable) to give sadaqatul fitr on the day of Eid before going for Eid prayer; but it can also be given during Ramadan or even earlier. (Ikhtiyaar: 1/182; Ahsanul Fatawa: 4/384)
However, if one is sending his sadaqatul fitr overseas (as most people in Australia do) then it is preferable to send it before the Eid day so that the poor and needy can receive it on the Eid day and they, therefore, are not in a state of need and apprehension on that day.
في حاشية الشيخ المحدّث علي السهارفوري على صحيح البخاري: قوله "أمر بزكاة الفطر قبل خروج الناس إلى الصلاة" ظاهره يقتضي وجوب الأداء قبل صلاة العيد ولكنه محمول على الاستحباب وذلك ليحصل الغناء للفقراء في هذا اليوم ويستريحون عن الطواف، قاله العيني ( صحيح البخاري: 1/204 ط قديمي كتب خانه )
If one has not paid his sadaqatul fitr till the Eid day has passed, he will be sinful and must pay it as soon as possible. Once he pays it, the sin will be wiped off. (Tahtaawi: 2/151)
4) It is permissible to give one’s sadaqatul fitr to more than one eligible person. (Tahtawi: 2/404; Shaami: 3/377-378)
And Allah Ta'ala knows best.
Darul Ifta Australia
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